Strategy Paper

Mobile Sea Otters (MSO), a non-profit organisation, was established in 2019 to tackle Isoyake, the decline of Moba in Japan. Through various activities across the nation, we have faced a lot of challenges, found solutions, and learnt many lessons and hints for further development for the future.

In 2022, we wrote this report to summarise and share the large accumulation of information publicly available in Japan as well as to make proposals to accelerate collective efforts to restore the invaluable Moba. We are happy to make this report available for download, free of charge, so that it can reach all those who may benefit from this information.

The objectives

  • To serve as the one-stop summary of information around Moba from both scientific and social aspects, looking at existing initiatives and effective restoration methods.
  • To introduce MSO’s own activities and challenges faced to share insights.
  • And based on the above, to identify key opportunities to develop efforts to restore and regenerate Moba in Japan.


  • Citizens, fishers and diver groups working to restore seaweed forest
  • Overseas readers trying to understand the basic structure of the Japanese fishery
  • Students and academics interested in Isoyake and seaweed forest
  • Businesses interested in blue carbon


Table of contents / Keywords

  1. Scientific Aspect
    What is “Moba“(seaweed beds)?, Ecosystem Services, Blue Carbon, “Isoyake” (decline of seaweed beds)
  2. Social Aspect
    Social structures of Japanese fisheries (Fisheries Act, fishing rights, fishing cooperatives, fishers and fishing communities of Japan)
  3. Current Initiatives
    “Guidelines for Countermeasures against Isoyake” (Fisheries Agency), effective methods and PDCA cycle, overview of ongoing initiatives (government-led, fishers and fishery cooperatives-led, diving community-led, civil organisations and students-led, others), MSO’s work
  4. Proposals to accelerate collective efforts in Japan
    Challenges, opportunities, keys to success, proposals

(Total: 45 pages)


(If you turn off the translation function, the download form will be displayed.)



English English 日本語 日本語